What Are Cytokines, Types, and Role in Inflammatory Immune Response?
This article explains what cytokines are, including the types and their role in the body.
Part of their job is to support anticancer activity in the body. Their signals tell abnormal cells to die and normal cells to live.
Another role of cytokines is to promote blood cell growth. They help all types of blood cells develop and mature.
All kinds of cells can make cytokines. However, the main producers are helper T cells and macrophages. Helper T cells are white blood cells that activate other immune system cells. Other names for them include CD4+ cells and T lymphocytes.
Macrophages are another type of white blood cell. They detect and destroy foreign invaders and activate other cells in the process.
There are several different types of cytokines, each with different roles.
Growth factors do just what they say—stimulate cell growth. Their role includes aiding wound healing and increasing the production of blood cell lines. They are also involved in abnormal processes, such as cancer and retinopathy (damage to blood vessels in the back of the eye).
Examples of growth factors include:
- epidermal growth factor (EGF)
- granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)
- platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
Interferons are cytokines that are important for fighting viruses. They activate natural killer cells and macrophages. They also have a role in suppressing tumors.
The interferons include:
The main function of interleukins is activating inflammatory and immune responses. This group is large and has dozens of members. Some of the more well-known ones help fight cancer. Abbreviated as IL, they include:
Tumor necrosis factors
Tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) also play a major role in inflammation and immune response. They activate immune cells and trigger the release of other cytokines, such as interleukins. They are also involved in abnormal immune and inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
TNFs include TNF-alpha and TNF-beta.
Cytokines work as messengers between cells. It starts when a cell that makes cytokines encounters something that stimulates it. This is usually some type of antigen. The cell releases the cytokines, which can act in three ways:
- autocrine, or acting on the same cell
- paracrine, or acting on nearby cells
- endocrine, or acting on distant cells
Most of the time, the cytokines work on the same cell that released it or on nearby cells. The cytokine acts on cells by attaching to receptors. Once it binds to the receptor, it activates a response in that cell. The effect will depend on the kind of cell to which the cytokine binds.
Cytokine release syndrome, or cytokine storm, is a severe immune system reaction that can be fatal. It is a massive production of cytokines that happens very fast. It can occur as the body responds to infection, autoimmune conditions, and some immunotherapies.
A cytokine storm causes dangerous inflammation and other reactions. It can progress to life threatening organ failure involving multiple organ systems. Doctors treat it with supportive care and medications to decrease the immune response.
There are several ways the body regulates cytokines. First, they have a short half-life, so they do not last very long. Their brief existence means they do not often affect cells far away from them. Most of their actions remain local in nearby cells.
The body also has a negative feedback loop for cytokines. This means high levels of cytokines should shut down the production of more cytokines. It is a way for the body to prevent the overproduction of cytokines. In a cytokine storm, the feedback loop fails, and cytokine production overwhelms the system.
In addition, some cytokines function as cytokine inhibitors. For example, IL-18 acts to inhibit other pro-inflammatory cytokines. Research also finds that the substance hemin decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Foods that fight inflammation are generally high in antioxidants and polyphenols. Foods that may potentially decrease inflammation include:
- fatty fish, such as salmon and mackerel, which are high in omega fatty acids
- fruits, such as blueberries and cherries
- green, leafy vegetables
- olive oil
Avoid foods that can promote inflammation, such as fried foods, refined carbohydrates, and red meats.
Cytokines are messengers your body uses to regulate inflammatory and immune responses. There are several different types of cytokines with different jobs. Some of them work to inhibit other cytokines. This is one way the body regulates the effects of cytokines.
The process works to keep things in equilibrium. In certain situations, an irregular process results in a cytokine storm. Treating a cytokine storm involves tamping down the cytokine response and relieving symptoms.