What is pale stool?
Pale stool is stool (feces) that is unusually light in color instead of medium to dark brown. The appearance of pale stools can include a variety of light colors or tints, such as white, silver, gray, light yellow, or putty-colored.
Normal brown stool coloring results from the breakdown of bilirubin, which is produced by the breakdown of old red blood cells. Bilirubin is normally processed by the liver and mixed with a substance called bile. Bile ducts carry bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine, where it mixes with partially digested food. In the colon, bilirubin is broken down into stercobilin, which gives stool its brown color.
Unusually pale or light-colored stool is often caused by a serious condition that interferes with bilirubin metabolism, such as a blockage of the bile ducts or liver disease. Pale stools may also be accompanied by jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (sclerae) caused by a buildup of bilirubin in the body. In some cases, pale stools may be caused by certain over-the-counter medications or substances used in X-ray procedures, such as barium.
Because pale stools may be caused by a serious disease or condition, you should seek prompt medical care if you, or your child, have unusually pale or light-colored stools. Early diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause of pale stool can reduce the risk of possible complications, such as liver failure.
Seek immediate medical care (call 911) if you, or someone you are with, have serious or life-threatening symptoms that may or may not accompany pale stools, such as lethargy or unresponsiveness, confusion, difficulty breathing, sudden swelling, or an unexpected change in consciousness or alertness.
What other symptoms might occur with pale stool?
Pale stool may accompany other symptoms, which vary depending on the underlying disease, disorder or condition. Pale stool caused by liver disease may be accompanied by fairly nonspecific symptoms, such as fatigue, nausea, and poor appetite.
Symptoms related to dietary or medication causes of pale stool
In some cases, pale stool may be caused by certain medications, preparations for procedures, or dietary factors that cause other symptoms including:
Symptoms related to liver or bile duct disease that may occur with pale stool
Pale stool is often caused by an underlying liver or bile duct disease. Symptoms of these conditions that can occur with pale stool include:
Dark or brown urine
Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes)
Malaise or generally feeling ill
Symptoms that might indicate a serious or life-threatening condition
Symptoms that may occur with pale stool can be caused by life-threatening conditions, such as liver failure, portal hypertension, or esophageal varices. Seek immediate medical care (call 911) if you, or someone you are with, have the following symptoms:
Change in level of consciousness or alertness, such as passing out or unresponsiveness
Change in mental status or sudden behavior change, such as confusion, delirium, lethargy, hallucination or delusions
Poor cognitive functioning due to the liver’s inability to filter toxins and a buildup of waste products in the blood and brain
Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
Seek immediate medical care (call 911) if your baby has any of these serious or life-threatening symptoms that may accompany pale stool:
Inability to wake your baby easily
Lack of stool or urine
Serious feeding problems or inability to breastfeed or bottle feed
- Unusually weak, stiff or floppy body
What causes pale stool?
Pale stool can be caused by a variety of mild to serious diseases, disorders and conditions, including dietary habits, medications, and underlying liver disease.
Dietary or medication causes of pale stool
In some cases, pale or unusually light-colored stool can be caused by certain medications and dietary choices including:
Antacids that contain aluminum hydroxide
Barium, which is used in some X-ray procedures to help visualize the gastrointestinal tract
Certain antibiotics and antifungal drugs
Hepatic (liver) causes of pale stool
Normally, the body continuously replaces older red blood cells with new ones. A yellow pigment called bilirubin is left behind from this process. Bilirubin is processed by the liver and expelled from the body in a substance called bile, which also contains substances to help digestion. Bile flows through the bile duct into the small intestine to aid in digestion and eventually mixes with stool for elimination. Pale stool is often caused by an underlying disease, disorder or condition that causes a problem with this process. Liver and biliary causes of pale stool include:
Biliary atresia (blockage in the ducts carrying bile from the liver to the gallbladder)
Cancer including that of the liver and pancreas
Cirrhosis (liver scarring due to a variety of liver diseases)
Congenital abnormalities of the bile duct system or of metabolism
Drug-induced cholestasis (slowing of bile flow due to medications)
Sclerosing cholangitis (scarring and permanent damage of the bile ducts)
Questions for diagnosing the cause of pale stool
To diagnose your condition, your doctor or licensed health care practitioner will ask you several questions related to your symptoms including:
When did the pale stool first appear?
What other symptoms do you have?
What over-the-counter and prescription medications and supplements do you take?
Pale stools can be caused by serious or life-threatening conditions, such as liver disease, which can lead to complications including:
In newborns, complications can include:
Teeth and vision problems
You can help minimize your risk of serious complications by seeking regular medical care and following the treatment plan you and your health care professional design specifically for you or your child.