SINGULAIR - Use montelukast sodium
SINGULAIR is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to any of its components.
Hypersensitivity to any component of SINGULAIR (4).
Use In Specific Populations
Available data from published prospective and retrospective cohort studies over decades with montelukast use in pregnant women have not established a drug-associated risk of major birth defects [see Data]. In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed with oral administration of montelukast to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses approximately 100 and 110 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human daily oral dose (MRHDOD) based on AUCs [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Poorly or moderately controlled asthma in pregnancy increases the maternal risk of perinatal adverse outcomes such as preeclampsia and infant prematurity, low birth weight, and small for gestational age.
Published data from prospective and retrospective cohort studies have not identified an association with SINGULAIR use during pregnancy and major birth defects. Available studies have methodologic limitations, including small sample size, in some cases retrospective data collection, and inconsistent comparator groups.
In embryo-fetal development studies, montelukast administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis (gestation days 6 to 17 in rats and 6 to 18 in rabbits) did not cause any adverse developmental effects at maternal oral doses up to 400 and 300 mg/kg/day in rats and rabbits, respectively (approximately 100 and 110 times the AUC in humans at the MRHDOD, respectively).
A published clinical lactation study reports the presence of montelukast in human milk. Data available on the effects of the drug on infants, either directly [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)] or through breast milk, do not suggest a significant risk of adverse reactions from exposure to SINGULAIR. The effects of the drug on milk production are unknown. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for SINGULAIR and any potential adverse reactions on the breastfed infant from SINGULAIR or from the underlying maternal condition.
Safety and effectiveness of SINGULAIR for asthma have been established in pediatric patients 6 to 14 years of age. Use of SINGULAIR for this indication is supported by evidence from well-controlled studies. Safety and efficacy data in this age group are similar to those seen in adults [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology, Specific Populations (12.3), and Clinical Studies (14.1, 14.2)].
The effectiveness of SINGULAIR for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis in pediatric patients 2 to 14 years of age and for the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis in pediatric patients 6 months to 14 years of age have been established and is supported by extrapolation from the demonstrated effectiveness in patients 15 years of age and older with allergic rhinitis as well as the assumption that the disease course, pathophysiology and the drug’s effect are substantially similar among these populations.
The safety of SINGULAIR 4-mg chewable tablets in pediatric patients 2 to 5 years of age with asthma has been demonstrated by adequate and well-controlled data [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Effectiveness of SINGULAIR in this age group is extrapolated from the demonstrated effectiveness in patients 6 years of age and older with asthma and is based on similar pharmacokinetic data, as well as the assumption that the disease course, pathophysiology and the drug’s effect are substantially similar among these populations. Effectiveness in this age group is supported by exploratory efficacy assessments from a large, well-controlled safety study conducted in patients 2 to 5 years of age.
The safety of SINGULAIR 4-mg oral granules in pediatric patients 12 to 23 months of age with asthma has been demonstrated in an analysis of 172 pediatric patients, 124 of whom were treated with SINGULAIR, in a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Effectiveness of SINGULAIR in this age group is extrapolated from the demonstrated effectiveness in patients 6 years of age and older with asthma based on similar mean systemic exposure (AUC), and that the disease course, pathophysiology and the drug's effect are substantially similar among these populations, supported by efficacy data from a safety trial in which efficacy was an exploratory assessment.
The safety of SINGULAIR 4-mg and 5-mg chewable tablets in pediatric patients aged 2 to 14 years with allergic rhinitis is supported by data from studies conducted in pediatric patients aged 2 to 14 years with asthma. A safety study in pediatric patients 2 to 14 years of age with seasonal allergic rhinitis demonstrated a similar safety profile [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. The safety of SINGULAIR 4-mg oral granules in pediatric patients as young as 6 months of age with perennial allergic rhinitis is supported by extrapolation from safety data obtained from studies conducted in pediatric patients 6 months to 23 months of age with asthma and from pharmacokinetic data comparing systemic exposures in patients 6 months to 23 months of age to systemic exposures in adults.
The safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 12 months with asthma, 6 months with perennial allergic rhinitis, and 6 years with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction have not been established.
Growth Rate in Pediatric Patients
A 56-week, multi-center, double-blind, randomized, active- and placebo-controlled parallel group study was conducted to assess the effect of SINGULAIR on growth rate in 360 patients with mild asthma, aged 6 to 8 years. Treatment groups included SINGULAIR 5 mg once daily, placebo, and beclomethasone dipropionate administered as 168 mcg twice daily with a spacer device. For each subject, a growth rate was defined as the slope of a linear regression line fit to the height measurements over 56 weeks. The primary comparison was the difference in growth rates between SINGULAIR and placebo groups. Growth rates, expressed as least-squares (LS) mean (95% CI) in cm/year, for the SINGULAIR, placebo, and beclomethasone treatment groups were 5.67 (5.46, 5.88), 5.64 (5.42, 5.86), and 4.86 (4.64, 5.08), respectively. The differences in growth rates, expressed as least-squares (LS) mean (95% CI) in cm/year, for SINGULAIR minus placebo, beclomethasone minus placebo, and SINGULAIR minus beclomethasone treatment groups were 0.03 (-0.26, 0.31), -0.78 (-1.06, -0.49); and 0.81 (0.53, 1.09), respectively. Growth rate (expressed as mean change in height over time) for each treatment group is shown in FIGURE 1.
Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of montelukast, 3.5% were 65 years of age and over, and 0.4% were 75 years of age and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. The pharmacokinetic profile and the oral bioavailability of a single 10-mg oral dose of montelukast are similar in elderly and younger adults. The plasma half-life of montelukast is slightly longer in the elderly. No dosage adjustment in the elderly is required.
No dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with mild-to-moderate hepatic insufficiency [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
No dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with renal insufficiency [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].